Analysis of CPU/battery impact

We utilized 2 apps (1 control, 1 variant) on each platform to validate performance using the native networking stacks versus Envoy Mobile:

  • Control: Made a request every 200ms to an endpoint without Envoy compiled in the app.

  • Envoy: Made the same request at the same interval, but using Envoy Mobile.

All request/response caching was disabled.



Valid through SHA v0.2.3.03062020.


  • Avg CPU: ~4%

  • Avg memory: 46MB

  • Battery: Negligible


  • Avg CPU: ~4%

  • Avg memory: 29MB

  • Battery: Negligible

Based on these results, control and Envoy are relatively similar with a slight increase in memory using Envoy.


Valid through SHA v0.3.0.05122020.


  • Avg CPU: ~5.16%

  • Avg memory: 109MB

  • Battery: 0.2%/min


  • Avg CPU: ~2.94%

  • Avg memory: 52MB

  • Battery: 0.23%/min

Based on these results, control and Envoy are relatively similar.

Experimentation method


The sample apps checked into this analysis repository were used to run the analysis outlined in this document.

For the analysis, we utilized Xcode Instruments to monitor the 2 sample apps while they ran in the foreground for a few minutes.

Control requests were made using URLSession, with the session configuration’s cache set to nil (disabling caching).

Variant requests were made using the EnvoyClient.

Both apps were run (one at a time) on a physical device (iPhone XS, iOS 13.3.1) while running Instruments.

Additional screenshots from the analysis are available on the release.


Modified versions of the “hello world” example apps were used to run these experiments:

Getting the build:

  1. Build the library using ./bazelw build android_dist --config=android --fat_apk_cpu=armeabi-v7a

  2. Control: ./bazelw mobile-install //examples/kotlin/control:hello_control_kt

  3. Envoy: ./bazelw mobile-install //examples/kotlin/hello_world:hello_envoy_kt --fat_apk_cpu=armeabi-v7a

Battery usage experiment steps:

  1. Set a phone’s display to sleep after 30 minutes of inactivity

  2. Unplug the phone from all power sources

  3. Open up the demo app

  4. Wait for the phone to sleep

  5. Look at the battery drain the battery settings in the phone to see the battery usage and drainage

Alternative profiling methods tried:

1. AccuBattery: We were unable to get the running time of a given application on AccuBattery to more accurately identify battery usage per minute

2. Battery Historian: We were unable to get reliable data using this method. Often times, the battery usage of an application appears to use no batteries

CPU usage experiment steps:

  1. Run adb shell top -H | grep envoy to get the CPU usage of the application (the -H flag displays the running threads)

  2. Wait 10minutes to gather a sample set of data to analyze

  3. Take the average CPU% and MEM%

Open issues

For current issues with CPU/battery, please see issues with the perf/cpu label.